By Willis, H. Lee; Schrieber, Randall R
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Extra info for Aging power delivery infrastructures
4 Characteristics of the Typical Aging Infrastructure Area 1. The system layout and design was first put in place more than forty years ago. 2. The majority of equipment in the area is more than forty years old. 3. The system is well engineered and fully meets minimum engineering criteria. 4. The area is seeing steady, if perhaps low, load growth. 5. The area is plagued by above average equipment failure rates. Overtime is high due to large amounts of unscheduled repair and restoration. 6. SAIFI began rising some years ago; SAIDI is beginning to rise now.
The second statistic, “Existing - $” shows how much the useful utilization of an existing distribution system can be improved with respect to that traditional paradigm. Existing systems encompass both the good and bad points of their past engineering and design, and those systems cannot be thrown away and re-designed based on new and improved rules. However, as shown, some improvement can be wrought in the MW/$ capability of these systems. 3 Improvements in Distribution System Cost and Performance Derived from Revision of Traditional Design Guidelines and Engineering Methods Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Utility System Type Electrical $ Urban UG, Atlantic coast Rural, small towns, Central US Metropolitan, Midwest US Entire system, IOU, Central US Rural, small towns, Southern US Entire system, Northeast US Metro suburban system, US Metropolitan system, Central US Statewide system, Western US 8% 12% 6% 2% 12% 22% 3% 7% 4% Existing $ 2% 0% 3% 3% 11% 16% 5% 15% 9% Reliability $ System Reli.
This is due to a host of secondary, but important effects related to primary feeder configuration and performance that will be discussed in Chapters 7, 8, 11, and 12. Symptoms of the obsolete system layout The net result of obsolete infrastructure is that higher loading levels have three undesirable consequences: 2a. Accelerated aging. Time to failure for most electrical equipment is often to a large degree a function of its loading. The higher utilization rates forced on utilities in these areas of the system cause electrical equipment there, particularly cables and transformers, to “age” or deteriorate faster and fail sooner.
Aging power delivery infrastructures by Willis, H. Lee; Schrieber, Randall R