Download e-book for kindle: A History of the Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis by J. Stewart Cameron

By J. Stewart Cameron

ISBN-10: 0198515472

ISBN-13: 9780198515470

ISBN-10: 1417599855

ISBN-13: 9781417599851

This booklet tells the extreme tale of the way the functionality of the 1st- and up to now nearly the one- human organ was once changed by means of a computing device, and the ''artificial kidney'' entered clinical and public folk-lore. a pragmatic articial kidney, or dialyser, got here via advances in technological know-how by means of the purchase of recent artificial fabrics which made the applying of those principles attainable. but it was once the commitment and endurance of a few proficient pioneers who pressed forward opposed to specialist oppostion to be successful, first within the remedy of transitority, recoverable kidney failure, after which everlasting renal shut-down which made it successful. the obvious excessive price and restricted availability of this type of therapy instantly raised moral questiond which had by no means been wondered sooner than, centering round fairness of entry to therapy, while and if therapy can be denied, and- worst of all- the agonising determination of whilst, as soon as tested, it may be stopped. Spiralling charges because the precise variety of individuals with kidney failure grew to become obtrusive raised significant political and monetary questions, that have been addressed in numerous nations in several methods which mirrored- but additionally helped switch- styles of the way remedy is supplied. In built nations, the matter can be solved by means of allocating a disproportionate sum of money to the therapy of fairly few kidney sufferers, yet within the constructing global the price of therapy nonetheless limits its availability, because it does all types of sleek healthiness care. however, at the present time nearly 1000000 humans world-wide are maintained alive following terminal kidney failure, thirds of them by way of a number of kinds of dialysis and the remaining bearing kidney transplants, in most cases put after a interval on dialysis. the tale is additionally the sum of the customarily heroic lives of those millions of sufferers, some of whom have this present day been maintained alive and energetic for greater than 35 years, and lots of of whom suffered recognized, but in addition unforeseen issues because of their therapy.

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Extra resources for A History of the Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis

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N. Comhaire en 1803. Néphrologie 1990; 11: 1–3. 3. Richet G. Edema and uremia from 1827 to 1905: the first faltering steps of renal pathophysiology. Kidney Int 1993; 43: 1385–96. 4. Vanholder R, de Smet R. Pathophysiologic effects of uremic retention solutes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 1815–23. 5. Galen C. On the usefulness of the parts (of the body) book 2, para. 169–175 (tr. Alain Touwaide). 6. Boerhaave H. In: Van Swieten G. Commentaria in Hermanii Boerhaave, aphorismos no. 1229, vol. 4, p 168.

MacMillan, London, 1911: 206–93. 8. Frame E. Thomas Graham: a centenary account. Philos J (Glasgow) 1970; 7: 116–27. 9. Harrison WJ. Thomas Graham (1806–1869). In: Stephen L, Lee S, eds. Dictionary of national biography. Oxford University Press, London, 1917: 361–3. 10. Munro AC. Thomas Graham 1806–1869. Philos J (Glasgow) 1972; 9: 30–42. 11. Smith R, Coleman JJ, eds. The life and works of Thomas Graham, DCL, FRS, illustrated by 64 unpublished letters. John Smith, Glasgow, 1884. 12. Graham T. On the motion of gases.

3). Graham took three giant steps in thinking about what we call diffusion: first, he evolved the laws of diffusion of gases which now bear his name [12,13] which state that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight; second, he investigated the nature of osmotic force [14]; and finally in a massive 50-page paper he described the separation of substances across mem- THE SCIENCE OF DIALYSIS: OSMOSIS, DIFFUSION AND SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES Fig.

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A History of the Treatment of Renal Failure by Dialysis by J. Stewart Cameron


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