By Paul E. Ceruzzi
This enticing historical past covers glossy computing from the advance of the 1st digital electronic desktop during the dot-com crash. the writer concentrates on 5 key moments of transition: the transformation of the pc within the overdue Nineteen Forties from a really good medical software to a advertisement product; the emergence of small structures within the past due Sixties; the start of private computing within the Seventies; the unfold of networking after 1985; and, in a bankruptcy written for this variation, the interval 1995-2001. the hot fabric specializes in the Microsoft antitrust swimsuit, the increase and fall of the dot-coms, and the arrival of open resource software program, relatively Linux. in the chronological narrative, the ebook strains numerous overlapping threads: the evolution of the computer's inner layout; the influence of financial tendencies and the chilly warfare; the long term function of IBM as a participant and as a goal for upstart marketers; the expansion of software program from a hidden aspect to an immense personality within the tale of computing; and the habitual factor of where of data and computing in a democratic society. the point of interest is at the usa (though Europe and Japan input the tale at the most important points), on computing in keeping with se instead of on purposes similar to synthetic intelligence, and on platforms that have been bought commercially and put in in amounts.
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Additional info for A History of Modern Computing (2nd Edition)
The Flexowriter was cheap, but slow. Attaching punched card equipment meant that a significant portion of the profits would go directly to IBM, and not to the struggling new computer company. As mentioned, National Cash Register bought CRC. Electronic Computer Corporation, founded by Samuel Lubkin of the original UNIVAC team, merged with Underwood Corporation, known for its typewriters. ) Consolidated Engineering of Pasadena, California, was absorbed by Burroughs in 1956. The principal legacy of the drum computers may have been their role as the vehicle by which many of the business machine companies entered the computer business.
UNIVACs were last installed in late 1958 or early 1959. designed a machine that used four binary digits (bits) to code each decimal digit. In its central processor, four general-purpose accumulators carried out arithmetic. A word was 45 bits long; each word could represent 11 decimal digits plus a sign, or two instructions. 25 MHz, and it could perform about 465 multiplications per second. That was about the same as the ENIAC’s multiplication speed; but the UNIVAC’s tape system and stored-program architecture made it a much faster machine overall.
Typically, a small engineering company would design a computer around a drum memory. I/O would be handled by a standard Flexowriter, or by punched card machines leased from IBM. The company would then announce the new machine at one of the Joint Computer Conferences of the Institute of Radio Engineers/Association for Computing Machinery. They would then get a few orders or development funds from the Air Force or another military agency. Even though that would lead to some civilian orders and modest productions runs, the company would still lack the resources to gear up for greater volume or advanced follow-on designs.
A History of Modern Computing (2nd Edition) by Paul E. Ceruzzi