By Dean Rickles

ISBN-10: 3642451284

ISBN-13: 9783642451287

In the course of its 40 12 months lifespan, string concept has regularly had the ability to divide, being referred to as either a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even puzzled no matter if it qualifies as a systematic idea in any respect. This booklet adopts an target stance, status again from the query of the reality or falsity of string concept and as an alternative targeting the way it got here to be and the way it got here to occupy its current place in physics. An all at once wealthy historical past is published, with deep connections to our such a lot well-established actual theories. totally self-contained and written in a full of life style, the booklet will entice a large choice of readers from beginner to expert.

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**Extra resources for A Brief History of String Theory: From Dual Models to M-Theory (The Frontiers Collection)**

**Sample text**

This suggests that there was something like a ‘crisis’ in Kuhn’s sense. It was, of course, resolved to the satisfaction of many physicists (in quantum chromodynamics [QCD]) by a complex series of discoveries, culminating in a solid understanding of scaling and renormalization, dimensional regularization, non-Abelian gauge 2 Particle Physics in the Sixties 23 resonance models alluded to in the previous chapter—can be viewed as perfectly rational and progressive steps given the state of physics just prior to it.

In effect one draws a black box around the innards of the process and focuses on the particles entering and leaving the box and the probabilities of their doing so. This is somewhat paradoxical since the interaction between particles is described by an expression involving the particles’ being far apart! The S-matrix catalogues these possible relations between inputs and outputs along with their various probabilities. Measurable quantities such as scattering crosssections can be written in terms of the matrix elements of the (unitary) S-matrix operator S.

348]. 16 This connection was at the core of Freeman Dyson’s equivalence proof of Feynman’s and the Schwinger-Tomonaga formulations of QED [16], which employed the S-matrix to knit them together—the method of proof was to derive from both approaches the same set of rules by which the matrix element of the S-matrix operator between two given states could be written down. 28 2 Particle Physics in the Sixties orbiting atoms. 17 Rather than describing what happens at the precise spacetime point (the vertex) at which the two or more particles meet (in which case there is no measurement to ascertain what is happening), one focuses on the measurable ‘free’ (non-interacting) situation when the systems were not and are no longer able to causally interact (mathematically speaking, at infinity, in the asymptotic limits), and therefore the particles have straight trajectories at constant velocities.

### A Brief History of String Theory: From Dual Models to M-Theory (The Frontiers Collection) by Dean Rickles

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